Freight transport is responsible for a large—and rising—share of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Despite great strides in truck efficiency and the emergence of electric trucks, vehicle improvements alone will not deliver a sustainable freight sector. This white paper examines how state freight planning could help increase the efficiency of the freight network, including through streamlined truck operations and greater use of trains and ships. As state freight plans thus far have done little to ensure that freight projects will reduce emissions, states would benefit from a federal framework that stipulates what freight plans must contain to advance sustainability goals. Useful requirements in future plans would be a performance measure for freight sector greenhouse gas emissions, mode share targets, data-sharing protocols, and community representation on state freight advisory committees.