Local governments in the United States are increasingly making commitments to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, often through initiatives designed to reduce building energy use. This report analyzes the relationship between per capita building electricity and natural gas consumption and multiple local factors, several of which are within the control of local governments. We conclude that per capita electricity and natural gas consumption declined in US municipalities between 2013 and 2016, and factors influenced by local government policies and programs were related to these shifts. Our findings reveal opportunities for local governments to develop initiatives that reduce per capita building energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in ways that will benefit both current and future residents. Future evaluations of local government policies and programs can be strengthened by collecting annual comparable data on the implementation and outcomes of these initiatives.