The economic benefits of energy efficiency extend far beyond lowering energy bills for consumers. Efficiency also contributes to economic development and job creation. But who benefits most from these economic opportunities? At every step of the economic value chain produced by efficiency investments, there are opportunities to target the economic and social benefits to those households, businesses, geographies, or sectors for which they will make the biggest difference. The results of these choices can include lower costs for low- and moderate-income families and small businesses; opportunities for disadvantaged, local workers to get jobs with good wages; and new and retained economic activity in disinvested communities. Designing efficiency programs to achieve these goals, in addition to saving energy, can have benefits that ripple throughout the economy, helping to address inequality, build a stronger middle class, and improve economic competitiveness.