Efforts to put a price on greenhouse gas emissions are growing, with carbon prices now in effect in all Canadian provinces as well as 12 U.S. states. Several North American carbon-pricing programs have been in effect for more than a decade; evaluations show they have reduced energy use and emissions while also providing other benefits. Energy efficiency plays an important role in several of these states and provinces, due in particular to carbon-price-funded programs that help reduce energy use and cushion the effect of a carbon price on energy costs. While a price on carbon is an important strategy, to achieve long-term carbon-reduction goals, carbon pricing will need to be complemented by other approaches to reducing energy use and emissions.
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Nadel, S., Gaede, J., and Haley, B. 2021. State and Provincial Efforts to Put a Price on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, with Implications for Energy Efficiency. Washington, DC: ACEEE and Efficiency Canada. aceee.org/research-report/i2101.